De Havilland Canada DHC-1 Chipmunk
|TRAINER||Virtual Aircraft Museum / Canada / De Havilland Canada|
The de Havilland Canada DHC-1 Chipmunk was designed to succeed de Havilland's classic Tiger Moth biplane trainer. Flying for the first time at Downsview, Toronto on 22 May 1946, the tandem- seat stressed-skin monoplane was the first indigenous design of de Havilland Aircraft of Canada Ltd. The prototype, put through its paces by Pat Fillingham from the parent company at Hatfield, was powered by a 108kW de Havilland Gipsy Major 1C. Chipmunks built to the prototype's specification were designated DHC-1B-1, while those with a Gipsy Major 10-3 were designated DHC-1 B-2. Most Canadian-built Chipmunks had a bubble canopy.
Downsview built 218 Chipmunks, the last in 1951. Two were evaluated by the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment at Boscombe Down. As a result, the fully-aerobatic Chipmunk was ordered from Hatfield and Chester to Specification 8/48 as an ab initio trainer for the RAF.
The RAF received 735 Chipmunks out of 1,014 manufactured in the UK. The first to wear RAF roundels were flown by the Oxford University Air Squadron from February 1950; thereafter, the type replaced the Tiger Moth with all 17 university air squadrons, as well as equipping many RAF Volunteer Reserve flying schools in the early 1950s. National service pilots underwent their initial training on the 'Chip', which served intermittently at the RAF College, Cranwell. A few Chipmunks of No. 114 Squadron were pressed into service in Cyprus on internal security flights during the troubles of 1958.
Under an agreement concluded between de Havilland and the General Aeronautical Material Workshops (OGMA) of Portugal 60 Chipmunks were licence-manufactured from 1955 for the Portuguese air force, and the type was still being operated by this service until replaced in 1989. Other users included Burma, Ceylon, Chile, Colombia, Denmark, Egypt, Eire, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Malaya, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Thailand and Uruguay.