BAC.111 One Eleven
1963
Back to the Virtual Aircraft Museum
  PASSENGERVirtual Aircraft Museum / United Kingdom / BAC  

BAC.111 One Eleven

Starting its history in 1956, the BAC One-Eleven originates from a 32-seat turbojet-powered transport which was designed as a project by Hunting Aircraft. Then identified as the Hunting H.107, it was planned with a power-plant of two rear-mounted Bristol Orpheus 12B turbojets, but after wind tunnel evaluation the design was amended to incorporate turbofans, then in the development stage. This led to a delay of four years, by which time Hunting Aircraft had been acquired by the British Aircraft Corporation, and it was decided to resurrect the H.107 for further market research and development by the combined design teams of Hunting and Vickers at Weybridge. There was little commercial enthusiasm for the BAC.107 in its final Hunting configuration, with accommodation for 59 passengers, but there was sufficient interest for a version with a maximum of approximately 80 seats to warrant the construction of a prototype and static test airframes.

Designated BAC.111 (and later to be called One-Eleven), the finally revised aircraft incorporated a circular-section all-metal pressurised fuselage, low-set swept monoplane wings incorporating Fowler type trailing-edge flaps, and airbrakes/spoilers on the wing upper surface, forward of the flaps. The T-tail included a variable-incidence tailplane, and the landing gear, of hydraulically retractable tricycle type, had twin wheels on each unit. Accommodation was provided for a maximum of 79 passengers in five-abreast high-density seating, and in addition to a conventionally placed passenger door at the forward end of the cabin on the port side, the BAC.111 had also a ventral airstair below the tail unit, giving access to or from the aft end of the cabin. Powerplant of the prototype One-Eleven Series 200, which was intended as the basic production version, consisted of two 4722kg thrust Rolls-Royce Spey Mk 506 turbofans, and so powered the prototype flew for the first time on 20 August 1963. Two months later, on 22 October, this aircraft was lost during the flight development programme, together with a highly experienced crew of seven that included test pilot M. J. Lithgow. Investigation showed the cause to be a deep stall, resulting from the T-tail and rear-mounted engine configuration, and remedial action included the installation of powered elevators, a stick-pusher, and modification of the wing leading edges. These changes were adequate to prevent the aircraft from assuming an inadvertent and dangerous angle of attack, a condition peculiarto this configuration, in which the wing loses lift and the horizontal tail surfaces are unable to restore longitudinal stability. Although responsible for extending considerably the test and development programme of the One-Eleven (the full certificate of airworthiness not being awarded until 5 April 1965), the detailed investigation of the cause and remedy of the deep-stall phenomenon was to prove of considerable value to aircraft designers and manufacturers worldwide.

Long before certification, in May 1963, the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) announced that it was intended to develop two other versions in addition to the basic Series 200. These were to include an increased payload/range One-Eleven Series 300, with 5171kg thrust Spey Mk 511 turbofans, and a generally similar One-Eleven Series 400 that would incorporate modifications to meet US requirements. As well as introducing more powerful engines, the Series 300 had increased fuel capacity, and strengthened wings and landing gear to cater for a 3856kg increase in gross weight. Interest in the One-Eleven was growing, following the initial order of 10 Series 200 aircraft from British United Airways (BUA), and market potential within the USA was demonstrated by an early order for six aircraft from Braniff International. When this was followed by orders from other US carriers, including American Airlines, the prospect for fairly large US sales seemed very good. However, by the time that FAA Type Approval was awarded, on 16 April 1965, there was a growing number of aircraft competing within the same payload/range category, and total sales to US carriers failed to reach the figures that had at one time seemed possible. Initial One-Eleven services were flown by British United, from Gatwick to Genoa, on 9 April 1965; in the USA, Braniff's first Corpus Christi-Minneapolis revenue flight was made on 25 April. In January 1966, BUA inaugurated London-Scotland and London-Northern Ireland One-Eleven domestic routes. Production of the three initial versions of the One-Eleven totalled 134: 56 Series 200, nine Series 300, and 69 Series 400 aircraft.

The steadily increasing number of air travellers meant that, within most categories of aircraft, carriers were looking for greater accommodation/payload capacity. 'Stretched', or increased-capacity, versions of the One-Eleven had been under consideration by BAC at much the same time as the original Series 200/300/400 aircraft were announced. However, it was not until British European Airways (BEA) began to show interest in an enlarged One-Eleven that design of what was to become the One-Eleven Series 500 was finalised. With a fuselage lengthened by 2.54m forward of the wing, and 1.57m aft of the wing, the Series 500 could accommodate a maximum of 119 passengers. More powerful engines were introduced, the wing span increased by 1.52m, and the structure of both landing gear and wings strengthened to make possible a significant increase in gross weight. This was originally 41277kg for takeoff, but has since been raised to a maximum of 47400kg. The prototype for the Series 500 was produced by conversion of the Series 400 development aircraft, and this flew for the first time in its new configuration on 30 June 1967. ARB certification of a production example was gained on 15 August 1968, and BEA's first revenue flight was flown three months later, on 17 November.

The final variant to appear was the One-Eleven Series 475, intended for operation from and into smaller airports, or in higher temperature/altitude environments. This retains the standard fuselage/accommodation of the Series 400, and combines the powerplant and wings of the Series 500, plus a modified landing gear to permit operation from lower-grade surfaces.

In addition to Series 475 and 500 aircraft which were available from BAe in standard configuration, two other special variants were available. These comprised executive or freighter configurations, and approximately 40 examples of the former are in service worldwide. The freighter conversion includes installation of a 3.05 by 1.85m hydraulically actuated cargo door in the port forward fuselage, and a quick-conversion freight handling system. New-technology options for new aircraft, and in some cases suitable for retrospective installation, include a fully certificated Category II automatic landing system, automatic throttle control, and engine 'hush-kits'.

A total of 230 One-Elevens had been built by BAC/BAe by the time production ended in Britain. However, responsibility for the type had moved to Romania, where the aircraft is still in production. Two variants are built, these being the Series 495 and Series 560, Romanian-built variants equivalent to the Series 475 and 500 respectively. Total transfer of production was preceded by the delivery in 1981-82 of a Series 487 freighter and two Series 525s. Then 22 kits were supplied to be assembled by the newly-established ROMBAC company. The first Romanian-assembled aircraft, a Series 560, flew for the first time on 18 September 1982 before delivery to the state airline TAROM. About twenty have been completed so far.

BAC.111 One Eleven


Specification 
 CREW2-3
 PASSENGERS86-119
 ENGINE2 x turbo-jet RR "Sprey-2 506", 46.3kN
 WEIGHTS
    Take-off weight33793 kg74501 lb
    Empty weight20473 kg45135 lb
 DIMENSIONS
    Wingspan27.0 m89 ft 7 in
    Length28.2 m93 ft 6 in
    Height7.2 m24 ft 7 in
    Wing area91.0 m2979.51 sq ft
 PERFORMANCE
    Max. speed885 km/h550 mph
    Cruise speed890 km/h553 mph
    Range2310 km1435 miles
    Range w/max.fuel4000 km2486 miles
    Range w/max.payload2900 km1802 miles

Comments
Ian Selden, 03.01.2017

Does anyone have any knowledge of or worked with my grandfather at Brooklands on the 111? His name was Reg Selden. If you have any information or stories please send directly to my mail address, ian.selden@yahoo.com Thanks

Bruno, 12.10.2014

I need some info please for BAC 1-11 475
Cruise speed (Kts)
Fuel Consumption (Usg/Hr)
Range (Nm)
Flap damage speed (Vfe)
Gear damage speed (Vle)

Moh, 01.09.2013

I am in great love with them birds and can't find enough of them on the net. Can someone help? wanna buy 1 or 2 if the price is right. Please help at above email

Kevin, 17.07.2013

Recall seeing one of these belonging to Tarom undergoing maintenance at Wisley Airfield in Surrey back in 68/9. Happy days.

Steve Bousfield, 05.07.2013

Spent many a happy afternoon in the back of British Eagle 1/11s on crew training sorties out of Teesside Airport in the Summers on 1966 and '67 when I had a 'vac job' there. It was there that I learned what a Maxaret was when one failed on a 1/11 and the BAC engineer explained its workings.
My last 1/11 flight was with British World Airlines (formerly British Air Ferries)from Bucharest to Stansted.

Phil, 02.04.2011

The BAC 1-11 has two Spey (not Sprey) turbo-fan (not turbo-jet) engines.

Garry Cope, 17.12.2010

Flew the BAC 1-11 from start to finish with Mohawk Airlines and Alleghny.Great airplane in winter or
summer!!Always easy to handle and never let me down!
To this very day my favorite jet aircraft!!!!!

Russ Adams, 13.12.2010

BAC-a-la we used to call them in the late 60s at American. I cut my maintenance teeth on this airplane at LaGuardia. Most of the guys doing the heavy overnights on this ship did not like it as it seemed the skin panels at least were installed with different fastners on each one, and each one was custom drilled to fit only one airplane. Nuisance. I did like the crackle of the engines on it's takeoff and you could always tell when one was leaving.

Andy, 02.12.2010

My very first jet flight London to Schiphol late 1960s and I was very impressed by the climb to 33 thousand feet. A really fine air frame and very responsive flight.

Jock Murray, 02.12.2010

A great aircraft and strong.I have flown in them in many parts of the world but the most memorable was putting into a local "airport" in Zambia fully loaded and the runway was not long enough.We had to reverse out under our own power back to the actual runway from the overrun area as there was not enough room to turn the plane. It still took off on schedule after the crew did their checks. The actual runway was only suitable for HS 748's and such like. Last one I was on was in 2000 on a flight from Johannesburg to Durban but the airline that was using them is now defunct.They went over to 737's and an engine fell off one as it was taking off. The beginning of the end for them unfortunately.

Jeff Lemon, 26.10.2010

As a passenger, I had the opportunity to fly on the BAC One-Eleven with Braniff International (in first class) out of Dallas, Texas and many years later with Pacific Express out of Santa Barbara, California. I truly enjoyed flying on this wonderful British twinjet.

Bob Leonard, 19.08.2010

In the early 1970's our airline purchased 3 BAC 111 (401AK model) part of the fleet BAC built for export to American Airlines. I flew over 1100 hours PIC during 4+ years and found the aircraft to be more a pilot's aircraft. Passenger acceptence wasn't that good due to cabin noise from what we considered poor sound insulation. But, saying that, I found the RR Spey MK512 to be very trouble free and the aircraft flew well. I did have the stick push activate once during flap retraction which sure got my attention. Never found out why, though I made lots of noise to maintenance. Only that once and never heard of its happening elsewhere. All in all, it was a good aircraft for short haul schedules.

Roger White, 02.12.2009

Worked at Hurn, as Aeronautical Engineering apprentice, and later as Manufacturing Engineer, 1967-1979. My work experience building the 1-11 served me very well. Excellent aircraft although a little noisy. The later retrofitted "hush-kits" helped.Eventually retiring from the USA shuttle/external tank/space program after a total of 39 years in the aerospace industry.

Roger White, 02.12.2009

Worked at Hurn, as Aeronautical Engineering apprentice, and later as Manufacturing Engineer, 1967-1979. My work experience building the 1-11 served me very well. Excellent aircraft although a little noisy. The later retrofitted "hush-kits" helped.Eventually retiring from the USA shuttle/external tank/space program after a total of 39 years in the aerospace industry.

Roger White, 02.12.2009

Worked at Hurn, as Aeronautical Engineering apprentice, and later as Manufacturing Engineer, 1967-1979. My work experience building the 1-11 served me very well. Excellent aircraft although a little noisy. The later retrofitted "hush-kits" helped.Eventually retiring from the USA shuttle/external tank/space program after a total of 39 years in the aerospace industry.

Garry Russell, 19.04.2008

The type is not a BAC 111 One Eleven but a BAC One-Eleven

The type although a revamped design based on the Hunting 107 became the fist airliner product of BAC largely led by Vickers so the type was to follow on the Vickers number system

VC 11 was the next number which was in use for the unbuilt small VC 10 replaced by the new design. To still follow on from the VC 10 and show it was the first BAC product it became BAC 1/11 or One-Eleven

Stefan, 08.09.2007

BAC 1-11 was built at the Romaero plant in Bucharest between 1982 and 1989. The programme was brought to a premature halt by the political and economic instability surrounding the Romanian Revolution of 1989, and only nine aircraft were built out of the eighty that had been planned. Most were operated by the Romanian airlines TAROM and Romavia, though as of 2006, almost all have been retired from service, with the notable exception of Romavia, which still uses 2 of them.

Stefan

Do you have any comments about this aircraft ?

Name    E-mail


COMPANY
PROFILE



All the World's Rotorcraft


Virtual Aircraft Museum


All rhe World's Rotorcraft AVIATION TOP 100 - www.avitop.com Avitop.com