Tupolev Tu-104


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Tupolev Tu-104

With an urgent Aeroflot need in the early 1950s for a modern airliner of greater capacity, range and speed than in-service aircraft, the Tupolev design bureau developed as the Tupolev Tu-104 a minimum-change civil version of the Tu-16 bomber, basically by introducing a new pressurised fuselage. The prototype made its first flight on 17 June 1955 and the type entered Aeroflot service during the following summer. Introduced first on the Moscow-Irkutsk route, the 50-passenger Tu-104 was powered by two 6750kg thrust Mikulin AM-3 turbojets and immediately reduced flight times by more than half, bringing transformation to the airline's medium-range routes. The powerplant was later uprated to the 8700kg thrust Mikulin AM-3M, which also powered the improved Tu-104A featuring a revised cabin for 70 passengers. Continuing development of the Mikulin engine encouraged development of the lengthened-fuselage (by 1.21m) Tu-104B, with standard seating for 100 passengers. This entered service on 15 April 1959.

When production ended the following year about 200 Tu-104s of all versions had been built, these serving Aeroflot reliably until 1981. The designations Tu-104D and Tu-104V were applied to Tu-104As with in-service modifications to accommodate 100 and 85 passengers respectively, without the fuselage stretch. Six aircraft supplied to the Czechoslovakian airline CSA were basically Tu-104As seating 81 passengers, and small numbers of Tu-104s have been used by the WS for cosmonaut training and as personnel transports. One, with a pointed nose, served as a weather research aircraft.

The Tu-104E was used to set a 2000km closed circuit record while carrying a 15-tonne payload. The NATO reporting codename for the Tu-104 was 'Camel'. At least one aircraft was converted on the production line to serve as the Tu-110 prototype, with four engines in the wingroots. It was assigned to the VVS after rejection by Aeroflot despite superior economy, field length requirements, performance and handling.

Tupolev Tu-104A three-view drawing (452 x 774)

 ENGINE2 x Mikulin AM-3M-500 turbo-jets, 95.1kN
  Take-off weight76000 kg167552 lb
  Empty weight41600 kg91713 lb
  Wingspan34.54 m113 ft 4 in
  Length40.05 m131 ft 5 in
  Height11.9 m39 ft 1 in
  Wing area183.5 m21975.18 sq ft
  Ceiling11500 m37750 ft
  Range w/max payload2650 km1647 miles

Phil van Leeuwen, e-mail, 04.04.2014 23:03

The first attempt at anything will result in something looked upon as crude after so many years have passed. The Russians built a great aircraft on their first attempt and it not only worked - after the kinks were resolved, but it was a gorgeous plane. Unfortunately, the Brits' first attempt was sorely lacking but we build on other's mistakes, one reason the TU 104 was more successful.


ponsankar.s, e-mail, 02.01.2012 13:23

i want the dimensions of chord ,aspect ratio, wing loading,fuselage length and dia,wing sweep, crussing alltitude,


T. Koppel, e-mail, 02.06.2011 19:41

Does anyone know when the Tu-104 visited the USA? I remember going to Friendship International Airport near Baltimore, Maryland, USA, as a teen-ager, to see the Aeroflot Tupolev that had landed there, probably in the late-1950s. At that time, it was VERY unusual to see a Soviet aircraft in America! I am very curious as to what was the date of such a visit.


Chilton Christopher, e-mail, 14.01.2011 02:28

I was stationed in Frankfurt, Ger. in 1958 , a TU-104 came in, visually , looked like a backyard concoction that took 3 tries to get off the ground.


Chilton Christopher, e-mail, 14.01.2011 02:01

I was stationed in Frankfurt, Ger. in 1958 , a TU-104 came in, visually , looked like a backyard concoction that took 3 tries to get off the ground.


Mike Kopecny, e-mail, 11.01.2011 19:40

CSA - Czechoslovak Airlines introduced this plane in 1957 on PRG-MOW-PRG services. In 1958-59 it was a big event when TU 1O4 PASENGER JET PLAN operated PRG to BRU (Belgium) on EXPO there. CSA advertised its services by the slogan FIRST IN THE JET AGE


Luiz Sergio Pinto Guedes, e-mail, 04.08.2010 01:37

Dear all, good evening. On 17-july-2010 I visited Zhulyani Aircraft Museum in Kiev, Ukraine, and I had the opportunity of seeing the aircraft Tupolev-104. It is really a great machine. Thanks and best regards
Luiz Sergio Pinto Guedes
Av. Bartolomeu de Gusmão 46 apto 911-D
11045-400 Santos - SP
telephone 55-13-32279281, 55-13-91737222


valdemar, e-mail, 03.11.2009 02:05

This aircraft appeared at the same time as the plane of Bristol, England, who had problems because of cracks that appeared in the fuselage, and later it was discovered that the fault occurred the window of a square. The TU-104 also had problems, but as the video I saw was spoken in Russian, I did not know.


Dietmar Schmidt, e-mail, 07.05.2009 11:00

Ladies and Gentlemen,

in 1969 I visited the Soviet Union for the first time. It has been a flight from Berlin to Moscow by Aeroflot TU-104.
For some years I try to get a model of this airplane (Scale 1:500 or other), but without success.
That`s why I ask you, to give me a short information, where I could buy such a little model of this aircraft.
Many thanks in anticipation
D. Schmidt, Germany.


Johnny Larke, e-mail, 20.01.2009 22:57

Flew on a CSA 104 out of Heathrow in 1964 on my way as a musician playing at the Bratislava Pop Festival. Rather impressed by the almost victorian furnishings.My God it was noisey even up front well ahead of those inboard engines. With the toilet at the back, I had to pull myself through the tunnel over the mid wing main spars. Very Quirky Never forget the aircraft. Russian aero engineering at its best.


ROBIN BAUGHER, e-mail, 24.09.2008 04:00

I heard that your airline was going to come into Melbourne Florida. I currently work at Kennedy Space Center and would like information about employment. Please advise me information where I can apply for employment.

Thank you,
Robin Baugher


Luiz Sergio Pinto Guedes, e-mail, 21.11.2007 12:10

TU-104 is a wonderful aircraft built by the Tupolev Factory in Russia. Congratulations for this marvellous website. Best regards

Luiz Sergio Pinto Guedes
Av. Bartolomeu de Gusmão 46 apto 911-D
11045-400 Santos - SP

telephone 55-13-32279281

e-mail address: sergioguedes@pop.com.br


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