Civil versions of the Ka-27 designated Ka-32T (transport) and Ka-32S (shipboard utility and ice reconnaissance) were developed in the mid-80s to fill Civil Aviation needs. They were optimised for carrying cargo inside the cabin or on a sling, loading and unloading ships both anchored at the roadstead and under way, supporting offshore oil rigs, search-and-rescue operations etc. Development of these aircraft was led by deputy Chief Designer M.A.Kupfer, with leading designer B.Ye.Sokolov as his assistant; Ye.N.Yamshchikov was leading engineer of the test programme. The prototype flew for the first time on October 8, 1980 at the hands of test pilot Ye.I.Laryushin. The Ka-32S differed from the Ka-32T in being fitted with a search radar and a navigation system required for ice-patrol flights. Series production of the Ka-32 has been going on in Kumertau since 1986.
G.Kuznetsov "OKB Kamov - 50 years", 1999
NATO reporting name: Helix-C
TYPE: Multirole medium helicopter.
PROGRAMME: Development of Ka-27/32 began 1969; first flight of common prototype 1973; first Ka-32 (SSSR-04173) flew 8 October 1980; prototype of utility version shown at Paris Air Show June 1985; new military versions first exhibited at Moscow Air Show '95; Ka-32S and Ka-32T versions in production by KAPP; other conversions by Kamov at Lyubertsy. Klimov VK-3000 turboshaft was to be certified in 2001 as alternative power plant, but no installations have been reported.
Ka-32T ('Helix-C'): Utility transport (transportnyi), ambulance, flying crane and agricultural sprayer; production began in 1987. Limited avionics; for carriage of internal or external freight, and passengers, along airways and over local routes, including support of offshore drilling rigs. Military "Helix-C" similar; no undernose radome, but with dorsal ESM "flower pot" and other military equipment. Several seen on board carriers, operating in SAR and planeguard roles. Military version understood to be designated Ka-27 or Ka-27T.
Detailed information applies to Ka-32T and Ka-32S. Ka-32A series generally similar, except as noted.
Ka-32S ("Helix-C"): Shipborne (sudovoi) version, intended especially for polar use; in production since 1987. More comprehensive avionics, including autonomous navigation system and Osminog (octopus) undernose radar (search radius 200km), for IFR operation from icebreakers in adverse weather and over terrain devoid of landmarks; 300kg electric load hoist standard; additional external fuel tanks available 1994, strapped on each side at top of cabin; duties include ice patrol, guidance of ships through icefields, unloading and loading ships (up to 30 tonnes an hour, 360 tonnes a day). Simplex carbon fibre/epoxy tank, capacity 1,500 litres or 3,000 litres, and 12.0m spraybar can be fitted for maritime anti-pollution work. Spraytime 6 minutes with 1,500 litre tank. In maritime search and rescue role, can loiter for 1 hour anywhere within 480km of base, and return carrying four crew and 5,000kg payload. Maximum fuel capacity 2,650 litres; weight empty 6,997kg; maximum payjoad 3,300kg internally, 4,600kg externally, maximum level and cruising speeds as Ka-32T.
Ka-32K: Flying crane (kran) with retractable gondola for second pilot under cabin. Prototype first flew December 1991; operational testing completed 1992. Supplied to Krasnodar Institute of Civil Aviation.
Ka-32A: Assemblies and systems of basic Ka-32 modified in 1990-93 to meet all requirements of Russian NLG-32-29 and NLG-32-33 and US FAR Pt 29/FAR Pt 33 airworthiness standards in categories A and B. First flight September 1990; Russian type certificates obtained for Ka-32A and its TV3-117VMA engines in June 1993. Production began 1996. Larger tyres. Optional pressure fuelling with reduced fuel capacity. Maximum accommodation for 13 passengers. Advanced avionics available, including Canadian Marconi dual CMA-900 flight management system, with EFIS, AFCS, CMA-2012 Doppler velocity sensor and CMA-3012 GPS sensor. Modification of helicopters to Ka-32A standard started by Kamov 1994.
Ka-32A2: Police version used by Moscow Militia, first flown 21 March 1995; seen in camouflage finish (RA-06144) at Moscow Air Show '95. Seats for 11 passengers, two of whom can operate pintle-mounted guns in port-side rear doorway and starboard rear window. Fuel tanks filled with polyurethane foam to prevent explosion after damage or catching fire. Equipped for abseiling from both sides of cabin. Hydraulic hoist; two sets of loudspeakers; L-2AG searchlight under nose. Militia reportedly has 25. Maximum T-O weight 12,700kg.
Ka-32A3: Ordered by Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations (MChS) to carry rescue and salvage equipment to disaster areas and evacuate casualties.
Ka-32A7: Armed export version (alternatively known as Ka-327) of Russian Border Troops' Ka-27PV developed from military Ka-27PS for frontier and maritime economic zone patrol, with Osrninog (octopus) radar and pairs of Kh-25 ASMs, UPK-23-250 pods each containing a GSh-23L twin-barrel 23mm gun with 250 rounds, or B-8V-20 pods each with twenty 80mm S-8 rockets, on four underwing pylons. Displayed - but not yet integrated - with Kh-35 (AS-20 'Kayak') active radar-homing ASMs. Provision for 30mm Type 2A42 gun above port outrigger. Optional twin searchlights on weapons pylons. Large oblique camera in starboard rear window. Search and rescue equipment standard, with ability to lift up to 10 survivors at a distance of 200km from base. Provision for 13 persons in cabin. Maximum T-O weight 11,000kg. Maximum level speed 260km/h. First flown 1995.
Ka-32-10: Announced 25 May 2001; projected 24-seat civil version with enlarged cabin; internal payload 4,000kg. Target certification date 2004.
Ka-32A11BC: Built in accordance with requirements of Transport Canada. FAR Pt 29 certification gained 11 May 1998, but full clearance achieved 26 February 1999, after installation of dual actuators in flight control system; first Russian helicopter to gain Western certification. Two development aircraft delivered to VIH Logging in May 1997; flew 4,000 hours up to February 1999; also used for firefighting; further 15 on order by 1998.
Ka-32A12: Version approved by Aviation Register of Switzerland.
Ka-32M: Under development by Kamov, to increase lifting capability to 7,000kg; retrofit with 1839kW TV3-117VMA-SB3 engines. Probably replaced in planning by Ka-32-10.
CUSTOMERS: Aeroflot and its successors; operators in Bulgaria (32S), Canada (32A), Laos (air force; six Ka-32T), Papua New Guinea (32A), South Africa (32A), Switzerland (32A), Yemen (32S/T). Estimated 132 Ka-32s in civilian use, of which 50 were abroad in 1998. Between December 1993 and November 2000, 36 imported by LGI of South Korea for operation by Forestry Service (23 Ka-32Ts), National Maritime Police Agency (eight Ka-32Ss), Kyonggi Provincial Fire & Disaster HQ (two Ka-32Ts) and Kyongsang Buk-do Fire Defence Aviation Corps, National Parks and Ulsan Fire Defence HQ (one Ka-32T each); further 20 expected in settlement of Russian debt, of which 10 reportedly ordered in March 2003 and three delivered by end of 2001. Following lease of two (later three) Ka-32s, Cyprus government announced intention, August 2001, to purchase three. Algerian Air Force acquiring unknown number, three of which (two Ka-32T and one Ka-32S) noted at Sankt Peterburg in August 2002.
DESIGN FEATURES: Conceived as completely autonomous 'compact truck', to stow in much the same space as Ka-25 with rotors folded, despite greater power and capability, and to operate independently of ground support equipment; special attention paid to ease of handling with single pilot; overall dimensions minimised by use of coaxial rotors, requiring no tail rotor, and twin fins on short tailboom; upper rotor turns clockwise, lower rotor anti-clockwise; rotor mast tilted forward 3°; twin turbines and APU above cabin, leaving interior uncluttered; lower fuselage sealed for flotation.
FLYING CONTROLS: Dual hydraulically powered flight control systems, without manual reversion; spring stick trim; yaw control by differential collective pitch applied through rudder pedals; mix in collective system maintains constant total rotor thrust during turns, to reduce pilot workload when landing on pitching deck, and to simplify transition to hover and landing; twin rudders intended mainly to improve control in autorotation, but also effective in coordinating turns; flight can be maintained on one engine at maximum T-O weight.
STRUCTURE: Titanium and composites used extensively, with particular emphasis on corrosion resistance; fully articulated three-blade coaxial contrarotatmg rotors have all-composites blades with carbon fibre and glass fibre main spars, pockets (13 per blade) of Kevlar-type material, and filler similar to Nomex; blades have non-symmetrical aerofoil section; each has ground-adjustable tab; each lower blade carries adjustable vibration damper, comprising two dependent weights, on root section, with further vibration dampers in fuselage; tip light on each upper blade; blades fold manually outboard of all control mechanisms, to folded width within track of main landing gear; rotor hub is 50% titaniuin/50% steel; rotor brake standard; all-metal fuselage; composites tailcone; fixed incidence tailplane, elevators, fins and rudders have aluminium alloy structure, composites skins; fins toe inward approximately 25°; fixed leading-edge slat on each fin prevents airflow over fin stalling in crosswinds or at high yaw angles.
LANDING GEAR: Four-wheel type. Oleo-pneumatic shock-absorbers. Castoring nosewheels. Mainwheel tyres size 600x180 (Ka-32); 620x180, pressure 10.80 bar (Ka-32A). Nosewheel tyres size 400x150 (Ka-32); 480x200, pressure 5,90 bar (Ka-32A). Skis optional.
POWER PLANT: Two 1,633kW Klimov TV3-117V (Ka-32) or TV3-117VMA (Ka-32A) turboshafts, with automatic synchronisation system, side by side above cabin, forward of rotor driveshaft. Main gearbox brake standard. Oil cooler fan aft of gearbox. Cowlings hinge downward as maintenance platforms. Fuel in tanks under cabin floor and inside container each side of center-fuselage; capacity of main tanks 2.180 litres; maximum capacity with two underfloor auxiliary tanks 3,450 litres. Single-point pressure refuelling behind small forward-hinged door on port side, where bottom of tailboom meets rear of cabin.
ACCOMMODATION: Pilot and navigator side by side on air conditioned flight deck, in adjustable seats. Rearward-sliding jettisonable door with blister window each side. Seat behind navigator, on starboard side, for observer, loadmaster or rescue hoist operator. Alcohol windscreen anti-icing. Direct access to cabin from flight deck. Heated and ventilated main cabin of Ka-32 can accommodate freight or 16 passengers, on three folding seats at rear, six along port side wall and seven along starboard sidewall (13 passengers in Ka-32A). Lifejackets under seats. Fittings to carry four stretchers. No provisions for lavatory or galley. Pyramid structure can be fitted on floor beneath rotor driveshaft to prevent swinging of external cargo sling loads. Rearward-sliding door aft of main landing gear on port side, with steps below. Emergency exit door opposite. Hatch to avionics compartment on port side of tailboom.
SYSTEMS; Three hydraulic systems: main system supplies servos, mainwheel brakes and hydraulic winch when fitted; standby system supplies only servos after main system failure; auxiliary system supplies brakes after main system failure and adjusts height of helicopter fuselage above ground; it can also be connected to main system for checking all functions on ground. Electrical system includes two independently operating AC generators and two batteries which cut in automatically or manually via inverters after AC generating system failure. After failure of either generator, the other is switched automatically to supply both circuits. Two rectifiers supply DC power. Electrothermal de-icing of entire profiled portion of each blade switches on automatically when helicopter enters icing conditions. Hot air engine intake anti-icing. APU in rear of engine bay fairing on starboard side, for engine starting and to power all essential hydraulic and electrical services on ground, eliminating need for GPU.
AVIONICS: Flight: Include electromechanical flight director controlled from autopilot panel, Doppler hover indicator, two HSI and air data computer. Fully coupled three-axis autopilot can provide automatic approach and hover at height of 25m over landing area, on predetermined course, using Doppler. Radar altimeter. Doppler box under tailboom.
EQUIPMENT: Doors at rear of fuel tank bay provide access to small compartment for auxiliary fuel, or liferafts which eject during descent in emergency, by command from flight deck. Container each side of fuselage, under external fuel containers, for emergency flotation bags, deployed by water contact. Optional rescue hoist, capacity 300kg, between top of door opening and landing gear. Optional external load sling, with automatic release and integral load weighing and stabilisation systems. Firefighting version of Ka-32T demonstrated in 1996.
Jane's All the World's Aircraft, 2004-2005