Gaston and Rene Caudron established airplane factory as
Caudron Freres at Romiotte (Seine) in 1910. Initial flight
of the first of a series of highly successful biplanes (G.I,
II, and III) February 1911. G.lll considered extremely reliable
and used widely as a trainer in the First World War.
Single-seat monoplane trainer
produced in 1912. G.IIIAs
were built for military use in 1914; used extensively by
France, U.K., Belgium, Russia ,and Italy as two-seat reconnaissance/
artillery observation aircraft. Several hundred
built, mostly in France, but also by British Caudron
and in Italy. Series continued with G.IV (1915), several military
variants; also in that year the prototype R.4 three-
seat bomber appeared, very solid and well armed. The R.11 with five Lewis machine guns was
produced a few
months before the Armistice was declared.
The company had moved to Issy-les-Moulineaux (Seine)
by 1919, and postwar products included C 23 (and/or C
232) two-seat biplane, which inaugurated French commercial
air services on February 10, 1919 with flight from
Paris to Brussels; C 61 three-engined six/eight passenger
biplane; three-engined seven-seat development of C
61 ; C 183, a further modernization of two previous aircraft
of which one
only was built, in 1925.
The company, known as Societe Anonyme des Avions
Caudron, ran into financial difficulties and was reorganized
as Societe Caudron-Renault. Next became notable for distinctive
streamlined aircraftfrom its designer Marcel Riffard,
who joined in 1932. His C363 took second place in
1933 Coupe Deutsch race; developed versions took first
three places in 1934 and 1935, first two places in 1936.
Derivatives of these included the Rafale series
and two-seat sporting/racing aircraft of the late 1930s.
Fifteen C 690Ms built as advanced trainers for the Armee
de I'Air; series ended with the C 720. Followed by the
single-seat C 580 and C 680; C 600 Aiglon series; C
620/C 630 Simoun four-seat cabin monoplane; C 640
Typhon series; the little-known C 670 ground-attack prototype;
and the single-seat C 860, built in 1938 for an
attempt (never made)
on 1936 Paris-Tokyo flight record
established by a Simoun. About 1,700 examples built in
about ten years of C 440 (later AA.1) Goeland, twin-engined
six-passenger transport. Two series of light fighters
developed from Coupe Deutsch racers: following C
710 and C 713 prototypes, four-gun C 714 entered service.
Improved variants CR 760 and 770 under development
when France collapsed. The factories built aircraft
for Germany during the Occupation. Later nationalized as
Ateliers Aeronautiques d'lssyles-Moulineaux; incorporated
into SNCAN in late 1945.